In our view, there's no "one size fits all" decision-making method. We've noticed that the most mature decentralised organisations use multiple methods, and they know how to switch from one method to the other, depending on the decision. In this article I'm going to share our definition of four different methods: consensus, consent, advice & mandate.
You’re looking for what is best for the group, which may mean putting personal preferences aside. Include as many stakeholders as possible and give everyone an equal voice in the process. Aim to understand concerns and objections so you can modify and improve the proposal. You may not reach unanimous agreement, but everyone should be satisfied this is the best decision we could reach.
How to do it
In general, the objective of a consensus process is to open up a wide ranging conversation to explore the possibilities, and then eventually converge on the
proposal that best fits the group.
Introduce and clarify the issue or opportunity
Explore possible ideas and solutions
Look for an emerging proposal
Discuss, clarify & amend the proposal
Then test for agreement:
Agree: I support this proposal
Abstain/Stand Aside: I will neither support nor object to this proposal
Disagree/Reservation: I think the proposal could be improved, but I do not object to the group moving ahead without my support
Block/Veto: I have a principled objection to the proposal and cannot let it proceed
You may need to define some specific details, like:
Decision threshold: how many group members need to participate for a proposal to pass? How many “Abstain”s or “Disagree”s can a proposal have and still pass? Who has the power to Block?
Timeframe: how much time can you allow for people to participate?
Facilitator: who is responsible for the process?
We can recommend this excellent guide from the Seeds For Change website for more guidance on Consensus.
Consent is a participatory process like consensus, but instead of seeking the best decision for the group, consent is the absence of objections. You’re looking for a proposal that is “good enough for now & safe enough to try”. Everyone has the right to make a “principled objection”. A valid objection is like “I think there is a serious risk this proposal could do harm”, not “I have a better idea” or “I don’t like it”.
How to do it
State the proposal
Question round: the proposer answers clarifying questions so everyone understands what is being proposed
Reaction round: the proposer listens as everyone takes turns to give their reaction, e.g. “I love it” or “I don’t think it is the best solution”
Re-state proposal: the proposer may modify or clarify the proposal
Objections: if anyone has a valid objection, the proposal needs to be modified
Confirmation: everyone visually confirms the proposal with a thumbs up, indicating “I can live with this decision”
See this article by Samantha Slade for more guidance on Consent.
Anyone can make a decision, if they first listen to the advice of people who will be affected, and people who have relevant expertise, and they take responsibility for the outcome.
As a decision-maker you own the decision. You don’t have to negotiate to satisfy everyone, but must genuinely listen to and understand the advice.
How to do it
Announce that you are seeking advice
Consult with people who will be affected, and people with relevant expertise
Make your decision
Announce the outcome: ensuring people know they were heard and understood, even if they disagree with your decision
See this article by Manuel Küblböck for more guidance on Advice & Consent.
A mandate is a limited authority to take decisions for a specific set of issues with a defined process. The limits should be clear, e.g. “Mara can take any marketing decisions, so long as they spend less than $1000, and stay within our agreed principles & objectives.”
A mandate can be for an individual or a collective, e.g. “The Brand Working Group decides what is an appropriate use for our logo.” It can be autocratic e.g. “you can make small purchasing decisions without seeking input from other people”, or consultative e.g. “the developers may choose what technology they use, if they first seek Advice”
How to do it
Mandates can be defined in an individual’s job description.
You can give a mandate to individuals or to teams, e.g. a group of 10 people could decide by consensus to organise into 3 distinct working groups.
Anyone can seek a mandate to be empowered by the group to explore a new opportunity.
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